Director: the person who makes artistic decisions, plans
the season’s programme, and hires singers.
- Conductor or Music director
The role of the conductor is to coordinate all the musicians involved
in an opera: the orchestral players in the orchestra pit, the
singers on the stage, and the chorus. The conductor is responsible
for defining the musical approach for the production as a whole,
and works closely with the Director. During performances, the
conductor silently gives cues, by hand or using the baton, to
the musicians and singers. The courtesy title of Maestro is sometimes
used for the conductor.
- Director: The director
supervises the visual aspect of a production and directs the movements
and gestures of the soloists and chorus. He or she defines the
underlying approach and visual rhythm of the performance. The
director is responsible for highlighting each role by coaching
the singers to perform the actions that illustrate each character.
- Production director: The
production director ensures the connection between the artistic
and technical sides of the production, and supervises the technical
staff during rehearsals and performances
- Technical director: The
technical director coordinates the technicians and staff responsible
for sound equipment, lighting, scenery and costumers.
- Stage manager: The stage
manager coordinates each performance, especially all the visual
elements from the curtain raising to the final bows by the cast.
(see Control Room below)
- Set designer: Plans and
supervises the construction of scenery (sets) for each act in
- Lighting designer: Plans
and creates the colour, intensity and timing of the lighting for
- Costume designer: Designs
the costumers and supervises their creation.
- Projected titles designer:
Translates the libretto that is projected as surtitles to help
the audience follow the plot when the opera is sung in a foreign
- Dresser: Helps singers
put on their costumers correctly and ensures that costumes for
all the performers are prepared and ready to wear.
- Make-up designers and wigmakers:
Design hairstyles and makeup for the singers.
- Prop designers: Locate
or manufacture all the props used on stage in addition to scenery
and costume (utensils, books, bags, etc.)
- Choreographer: Creates
dance movements and coaches the performers.
- Stage technicians: Install
and remove scenery between scenes.
- Electricians: Install
lighting and all the electrical elements needed in a production.
- Special effects technicians:
Supervise special effects.
- Projectionists: Project
surtitles (a translation of the libretto) onto a screen above